India Product

Kusamox Tablets

Kusamox Tablets

Why you have been prescribed this medicine?

You have been prescribed this medicine if you have any of the following:
• Acute bacterial sinusitis (adequately diagnosed)
• Acute otitis media
• Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (adequately diagnosed)
• Community acquired pneumonia
• Cystitis
• Pyelonephritis
• Skin and soft tissue infections in particular cellulitis, animal bites, severe dental abscess with spreading cellulitis.
• Bone and joint infections, in particular osteomyelitis.

Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.


What to do if you miss a dose?

If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the dose you missed and take your next dose when you are meant to. Otherwise take it as soon as you remember and then go back to taking it as you would normally.

You should consult your doctor if you experience any of the following:

You should consult your doctor if you experience any of the following:
The most commonly reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting.
The ADRs derived from clinical studies and post-marketing surveillance with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, sorted by MedDRA System Organ Class are listed below. The following terminologies have been used in order to classify the occurrence of undesirable effects.
Very common (≥1/10)
Common (≥1/100 to <1/10)
Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100)
Rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000)

Infections and infestations

Mucocutaneous candidosis

Common

Overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms

Not known

Aseptic meningitis

Not known

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Reversible leucopenia (including neutropenia)

Rare

Thrombocytopenia

Rare

Reversible agranulocytosis

Not known

Haemolytic anaemia

Not known

Prolongation of bleeding time and prothrombin time1

Not known

Cardiac Disorders

Kounis sindrome

Not known

Immune system disorders10

Angioneurotic oedema

Not known

Anaphylaxis

Not known

Serum sickness-like syndrome

Not known

Hypersensitivity vasculitis

Not known

Nervous system disorders

Dizziness

Uncommon

Headache

Uncommon

Reversible hyperactivity

Not known

Convulsions2

Not known

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea

Very common

Nausea3

Common

Vomiting

Common

Indigestion

Uncommon

Antibiotic-associated colitis4

Not known

Black hairy tongue

Not known

Hepatobiliary disorders

Rises in AST and/or ALT5

Uncommon

Hepatitis6

Not known

Cholestatic jaundice6

Not known

Cholangitis

Not known

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders7

Skin rash

Uncommon

Pruritus

Uncommon

Urticaria

Uncommon

Erythema multiforme

Rare

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Not known

Toxic epidermal necrolysis

Not known

Bullous exfoliative-dermatitis

Not known

Acute generalized exanthemous pustulosis (AGEP)9

Not known

Renal and urinary disorders

Interstitial nephritis

Not known

Crystalluria8

Not known

1 See section Precautions
2 See section Precautions
3 Nausea is more often associated with higher oral doses. If gastrointestinal reactions are evident, they may be reduced by taking amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the start of a meal
4 Including pseudomembranous colitis and haemorrhagic colitis (see section Precautions)
5 A moderate rise in AST and/or ALT has been noted in patients treated with beta-lactam class antibiotics, but the significance of these findings is unknown.
6 These events have been noted with other penicillins and cephalosporins (see section Precautions).
7 If any hypersensitivity dermatitis reaction occurs, treatment should be discontinued (see section Precautions)
8 See section Precautions.
9 See section Precautions.
10 See sections contra indication and Precautions.

Things you MUST NOT DO while on this medicine?

Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, careful enquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins or other beta-lactam agents (see sections 4.3 and 4.8).
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and in atopic individuals. If an allergic reaction occurs, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid therapy must be discontinued and appropriate alternative therapy instituted.
In the case that an infection is proven to be due to an amoxicillin-susceptible organism(s) then consideration should be given to switching from amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to amoxicillin in accordance with official guidance.
This presentation of Co-amoxiclav is not suitable for use when there is a high risk that the presumptive pathogens have reduced susceptibility or resistance to beta-lactam agents that is not mediated by beta-lactamases susceptible to inhibition by clavulanic acid. This presentation should not be used to treat penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.
Convulsions may occur in patients with impaired renal function or in those receiving high doses (see sections 4.8).
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid should be avoided if infectious mononucleosis is suspected since the occurrence of a morbilliform rash has been associated with this condition following the use of amoxicillin.
Concomitant use of allopurinol during treatment with amoxicillin amoxicillin can increase the likelihood of allergic skin reactions.
Prolonged use may occasionally result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms.
The occurrence at the treatment initiation of a feverish generalised erythema associated with pustula may be a symptom of acute generalised exanthemous pustulosis (AGEP) (see section 4.8). This reaction requires Co-amoxiclav discontinuation and contra-indicates any subsequent administration of amoxicillin.
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic impairment (see sections 4.2, 4.3 and 4.8).
Hepatic events have been reported predominantly in males and elderly patients and may be associated with prolonged treatment. These events have been very rarely reported in children. In all populations, signs and symptoms usually occur during or shortly after treatment but in some cases may not become apparent until several weeks after treatment has ceased. These are usually reversible. Hepatic events may be severe and, in extremely rare circumstances, deaths have been reported. These have almost always occurred in patients with serious underlying disease or taking concomitant medications known to have the potential for hepatic effects (see section 4.8).
Antibiotic-associated colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents including amoxicillin and may range in severity from mild to life threatening (see section 4.8). Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhoea during or subsequent to the administration of any antibiotics. Should-antibiotic associated colitis occur, Co-amoxiclav should immediately be discontinued, a physician be consulted and an appropriate therapy initiated. Anti-peristaltic medicinal products are contra-indicated in this situation.
Periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic and haematopoietic function is advisable during prolonged therapy.
Prolongation of prothrombin time has been reported rarely in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concomitantly. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation (see section 4.5 and 4.8).
In patients with renal impairment, the dose should be adjusted according to the degree of impairment (see section 4.2).
In patients with reduced urine output, crystalluria has been observed very rarely, predominantly with parenteral therapy. During the administration of high doses of amoxicillin, it is advisable to maintain adequate fluid intake and urinary output in order to reduce the possibility of amoxicillin crystalluria. In patients with bladder catheters, a regular check of patency should be maintained (see section 4.9).
During treatment with amoxicillin, enzymatic glucose oxidase methods should be used whenever testing for the presence of glucose in urine because false positive results may occur with non-enzymatic methods.
The presence of clavulanic acid in Co-amoxiclav may cause a non-specific binding of IgG and albumin by red cell membranes leading to a false positive Coombs test.
There have been reports of positive test results using the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid who were subsequently found to be free of Aspergillus infection. Cross-reactions with non-Aspergillus polysaccharides and polyfuranoses with Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test have been reported. Therefore, positive test results in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by other diagnostic methods.
Influence on velocity reactions while driving motor transport and operating other mechanisms:
No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, undesirable effects may occur (e.g. allergic reactions, dizziness, convulsions), which may influence the ability to drive and use machines.

What to do if you accidentally take too much (overdose) of the medicine?

Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, careful enquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins or other beta-lactam agents (see sections 4.3 and 4.8).
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and in atopic individuals. If an allergic reaction occurs, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid therapy must be discontinued and appropriate alternative therapy instituted.
In the case that an infection is proven to be due to an amoxicillin-susceptible organism(s) then consideration should be given to switching from amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to amoxicillin in accordance with official guidance.
This presentation of Co-amoxiclav is not suitable for use when there is a high risk that the presumptive pathogens have reduced susceptibility or resistance to beta-lactam agents that is not mediated by beta-lactamases susceptible to inhibition by clavulanic acid. This presentation should not be used to treat penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.
Convulsions may occur in patients with impaired renal function or in those receiving high doses (see sections 4.8).
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid should be avoided if infectious mononucleosis is suspected since the occurrence of a morbilliform rash has been associated with this condition following the use of amoxicillin.
Concomitant use of allopurinol during treatment with amoxicillin amoxicillin can increase the likelihood of allergic skin reactions.
Prolonged use may occasionally result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms.
The occurrence at the treatment initiation of a feverish generalised erythema associated with pustula may be a symptom of acute generalised exanthemous pustulosis (AGEP) (see section 4.8). This reaction requires Co-amoxiclav discontinuation and contra-indicates any subsequent administration of amoxicillin.
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic impairment (see sections 4.2, 4.3 and 4.8).
Hepatic events have been reported predominantly in males and elderly patients and may be associated with prolonged treatment. These events have been very rarely reported in children. In all populations, signs and symptoms usually occur during or shortly after treatment but in some cases may not become apparent until several weeks after treatment has ceased. These are usually reversible. Hepatic events may be severe and, in extremely rare circumstances, deaths have been reported. These have almost always occurred in patients with serious underlying disease or taking concomitant medications known to have the potential for hepatic effects (see section 4.8).
Antibiotic-associated colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents including amoxicillin and may range in severity from mild to life threatening (see section 4.8). Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhoea during or subsequent to the administration of any antibiotics. Should-antibiotic associated colitis occur, Co-amoxiclav should immediately be discontinued, a physician be consulted and an appropriate therapy initiated. Anti-peristaltic medicinal products are contra-indicated in this situation.
Periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic and haematopoietic function is advisable during prolonged therapy.
Prolongation of prothrombin time has been reported rarely in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concomitantly. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation (see section 4.5 and 4.8).
In patients with renal impairment, the dose should be adjusted according to the degree of impairment (see section 4.2).
In patients with reduced urine output, crystalluria has been observed very rarely, predominantly with parenteral therapy. During the administration of high doses of amoxicillin, it is advisable to maintain adequate fluid intake and urinary output in order to reduce the possibility of amoxicillin crystalluria. In patients with bladder catheters, a regular check of patency should be maintained (see section 4.9).
During treatment with amoxicillin, enzymatic glucose oxidase methods should be used whenever testing for the presence of glucose in urine because false positive results may occur with non-enzymatic methods.
The presence of clavulanic acid in Co-amoxiclav may cause a non-specific binding of IgG and albumin by red cell membranes leading to a false positive Coombs test.
There have been reports of positive test results using the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid who were subsequently found to be free of Aspergillus infection. Cross-reactions with non-Aspergillus polysaccharides and polyfuranoses with Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test have been reported. Therefore, positive test results in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by other diagnostic methods.
Influence on velocity reactions while driving motor transport and operating other mechanisms:
No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. However, undesirable effects may occur (e.g. allergic reactions, dizziness, convulsions), which may influence the ability to drive and use machines.

Is it safe in pregnancy and breast-feeding?

Pregnancy
Animal studies do not indicate direct or indirect harmful effects with respect to pregnancy, embryonal/foetal development, parturition or postnatal development (see section 5.3). Limited data on the use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid during pregnancy in humans do not indicate an increased risk of congenital malformations. In a single study in women with preterm, premature rupture of the foetal membrane it was reported that prophylactic treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid may be associated with an increased risk of necrotising enterocolitis in neonates. Use should be avoided during pregnancy, unless considered essential by the physician.

Lactation
Both substances are excreted into breast milk (nothing is known of the effects of clavulanic acid on the breast-fed infant). Consequently, diarrhoea and fungus infection of the mucous membranes are possible in the breast-fed infant, so that breast-feeding might have to be discontinued.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should only be used during breast-feeding after benefit/risk assessment by the physician in charge.

 

Storage Conditions:

Store in a dry, protected from light place at a temperature not more than 30oC.
Keep it out of reach of children.

Drug Description

Active substance: amoxicillin, clavulanic acid.

Each film-coated tablet contains amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 500 mg amoxicillin with potassium clavulanate equivalent to 125 mg clavulanic acid.

Additional ingredients: MCC, Cross Carmellose Sodium, Colloidal Anhydrous Silicon, Magnesium Stearate. Purified Talc

 

Indications and dosage.

Indications:

Kusamox is indicated for the treatment of the following infections in adults and children:
• Acute bacterial sinusitis (adequately diagnosed)
• Acute otitis media
• Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (adequately diagnosed)
• Community acquired pneumonia
• Cystitis
• Pyelonephritis
• Skin and soft tissue infections in particular cellulitis, animal bites, severe dental abscess with spreading cellulitis.
• Bone and joint infections, in particular osteomyelitis.
Consideration should be given to official guidance on the appropriate use of antibacterial agents.

    Dosage:

Doses are expressed throughout in terms of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid content except when doses are stated in terms of an individual component.
The dose of Kusamoxthat is selected to treat an individual infection should take into account:
• The expected pathogens and their likely susceptibility to antibacterial agents.
• The severity and the site of the infection
• The age, weight and renal function of the patient as shown below.
The use of alternative presentations of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (e.g. those that provide higher doses of amoxicillin and/or different ratios of amoxicillin to clavulanic acid) should be considered as necessary.
The duration of therapy should be determined by the response of the patient. Some infections (e.g. osteomyelitis) require longer periods of treatment. Treatment should not be extended beyond 14 days without review.

Adults and children ≥ 40 kg
One 500 mg/125 mg dose taken three times a day.

Children < 40 kg
20 mg/5 mg/kg/day to 60 mg/15 mg/kg/day given in three divided doses.
No clinical data are available on doses of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 4:1 formulations higher than 40 mg/ 10mg/kg per day in children under 2 years.

Elderly
No dose adjustment is considered necessary.

Renal impairment
Dose adjustments are based on the maximum recommended level of amoxicillin.
No adjustment in dose is required in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) greater than 30 ml/min.

Adults and children ≥ 40 kg


CrCl: 10-30 ml/min

500 mg/125 mg twice daily

CrCl < 10 ml/min

500 mg/125 mg once daily

Haemodialysis

500 mg/125 mg every 24 hours, plus 500 mg/125 mg during dialysis, to be repeated at the end of dialysis (as serum concentrations of both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are decreased)

Children < 40 kg

CrCl: 10-30 ml/min

15 mg/3.75 mg/kg twice daily (maximum 500 mg/125 mg twice daily)

CrCl < 10 ml/min

15 mg/3.75 mg/kg as a single daily dose (maximum 500 mg/125 mg)

Haemodialysis

15 mg/3.75 mg/kg per day once daily.
Prior to haemodialysis 15 mg/3.75 mg/kg. In order to restore circulating drug levels, 15 mg/3.75 mg per kg should be administered after haemodialysis.

Hepatic impairment
Dose with caution and monitor hepatic function at regular intervals.

Method of administration
Kusamoxis for oral use.

Administer at the start of a meal to minimise potential gastrointestinal intolerance and optimise absorption of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.

Side effects and drug interactions.

Adverse reactions:
The most commonly reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting.
The ADRs derived from clinical studies and post-marketing surveillance with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, sorted by MedDRA System Organ Class are listed below.

The following terminologies have been used in order to classify the occurrence of undesirable effects.

Very common (≥1/10)
Common (≥1/100 to <1/10)
Uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100)
Rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000)
Very rare (<1/10,000)
Not known (cannot be estimated from the available data)

Infections and infestations

Mucocutaneous candidosis

Common

Overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms

Not known

Aseptic meningitis

Not known

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Reversible leucopenia (including neutropenia)

Rare

Thrombocytopenia

Rare

Reversible agranulocytosis

Not known

Haemolytic anaemia

Not known

Prolongation of bleeding time and prothrombin time1

Not known

Cardiac Disorders

Kounis sindrome

Not known

Immune system disorders10

Angioneurotic oedema

Not known

Anaphylaxis

Not known

Serum sickness-like syndrome

Not known

Hypersensitivity vasculitis

Not known

Nervous system disorders

Dizziness

Uncommon

Headache

Uncommon

Reversible hyperactivity

Not known

Convulsions2

Not known

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhoea

Very common

Nausea3

Common

Vomiting

Common

Indigestion

Uncommon

Antibiotic-associated colitis4

Not known

Black hairy tongue

Not known

Hepatobiliary disorders

Rises in AST and/or ALT5

Uncommon

Hepatitis6

Not known

Cholestatic jaundice6

Not known

Cholangitis

Not known

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders7

Skin rash

Uncommon

Pruritus

Uncommon

Urticaria

Uncommon

Erythema multiforme

Rare

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

Not known

Toxic epidermal necrolysis

Not known

Bullous exfoliative-dermatitis

Not known

Acute generalized exanthemous pustulosis (AGEP)9

Not known

Renal and urinary disorders

Interstitial nephritis

Not known

Crystalluria8

Not known

1 See section Precautions
2 See section Precautions
3 Nausea is more often associated with higher oral doses. If gastrointestinal reactions are evident, they may be reduced by taking amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at the start of a meal
4 Including pseudomembranous colitis and haemorrhagic colitis (see section Precautions)
5 A moderate rise in AST and/or ALT has been noted in patients treated with beta-lactam class antibiotics, but the significance of these findings is unknown.
6 These events have been noted with other penicillins and cephalosporins (see section Precautions).
7 If any hypersensitivity dermatitis reaction occurs, treatment should be discontinued (see section Precautions)
8 See section Precautions.
9 See section Precautions.
10 See sections contra indication and Precautions.

           Drug interactions
Oral anticoagulants
Oral anticoagulants and penicillin antibiotics have been widely used in                practice without reports of interaction. However, in the literature there are cases of increased international normalised ratio in patients maintained on acenocoumarol or warfarin and prescribed a course of amoxicillin. If co-administration is necessary, the prothrombin time or international normalised ratio should be carefully monitored with the addition or withdrawal of amoxicillin. Moreover, adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary (see sections 4.4 and 4.8).
Methotrexate
Penicillins may reduce the excretion of methotrexate causing a potential increase in toxicity.
          Probenecid
Concomitant use of probenecid is not recommended. Probenecid decreases          the renal tubular secretion of amoxicillin. Concomitant use of probenecid may result in increased and prolonged blood levels of amoxicillin but not of clavulanic acid.
Mycophenolate mofetil
Reductions in pre-dose (trough) MPA concentrations of about 50% have  been reported in renal transplant recipients in the days immediately following commencement of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. This effect tended to diminish with continued amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid use and to cease within a few days of their discontinuation. The change in predose level may not accurately represent changes in overall MPA exposure. Therefore, a change in the dose of mycophenolate mofetil should not normally be necessary in the absence of clinical evidence of graft dysfunction. However, close clinical monitoring should be performed during the combination and shortly after antibiotic treatment.

Warnings and precautions

Before initiating therapy with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, careful enquiry  should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins or other beta-lactam agents (see sections 4.3 and 4.8).
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid) reactions  have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. These reactions are more likely to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and in atopic individuals. If an allergic reaction occurs, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid therapy must be discontinued and appropriate alternative therapy instituted.
In the case that an infection is proven to be due to an amoxicillin-susceptible organism(s) then consideration should be given to switching from amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to amoxicillin in accordance with official guidance.
This presentation of Co-amoxiclav is not suitable for use when there is a high risk that the presumptive pathogens have reduced susceptibility or resistance to beta-lactam agents that is not mediated by beta-lactamases susceptible to inhibition by clavulanic acid. This presentation should not be used to treat penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae.
Convulsions may occur in patients with impaired renal function or in those receiving high doses (see sections 4.8).
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid should be avoided if infectious mononucleosis is suspected since the occurrence of a morbilliform rash has been associated with this condition following the use of amoxicillin.
Concomitant use of allopurinol during treatment with amoxicillin amoxicillin can  increase the likelihood of allergic skin reactions.
Prolonged use may occasionally result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms.
The occurrence at the treatment initiation of a feverish generalised erythema associated with pustula may be a symptom of acute generalised exanthemous pustulosis (AGEP) (see section 4.8). This reaction requires Co-amoxiclav discontinuation and contra-indicates any subsequent administration of amoxicillin.
Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid should be used with caution in patients with evidence of hepatic impairment (see sections 4.2, 4.3 and 4.8).
Hepatic events have been reported predominantly in males and elderly patients and may be associated with prolonged treatment. These events have been very rarely reported in children. In all populations, signs and symptoms usually occur during or shortly after treatment but in some cases may not become apparent until several weeks after treatment has ceased. These are usually reversible. Hepatic events may be severe and, in extremely rare circumstances, deaths have been reported. These have almost always occurred in patients with serious underlying disease or taking concomitant medications known to have the potential for hepatic effects (see section 4.8).
Antibiotic-associated colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents including amoxicillin and may range in severity from mild to life threatening (see section 4.8). Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhoea during or subsequent to the administration of any antibiotics. Should-antibiotic associated colitis occur, Co-amoxiclav should immediately be discontinued, a physician be consulted and an appropriate therapy initiated. Anti-peristaltic medicinal products are contra-indicated in this situation.
Periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic and haematopoietic function is advisable during prolonged therapy.
Prolongation of prothrombin time has been reported rarely in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Appropriate monitoring should be undertaken when anticoagulants are prescribed concomitantly. Adjustments in the dose of oral anticoagulants may be necessary to maintain the desired level of anticoagulation (see section 4.5 and 4.8).
In patients with renal impairment, the dose should be adjusted according to the degree of impairment (see section 4.2).
In patients with reduced urine output, crystalluria has been observed very rarely, predominantly with parenteral therapy. During the administration of high doses of amoxicillin, it is advisable to maintain adequate fluid intake and urinary output in order to reduce the possibility of amoxicillin crystalluria. In patients with bladder catheters, a regular check of patency should be maintained (see section 4.9).
During treatment with amoxicillin, enzymatic glucose oxidase methods should be used whenever testing for the presence of glucose in urine because false positive results may occur with non-enzymatic methods.
The presence of clavulanic acid in Co-amoxiclav may cause a non-specific binding of IgG and albumin by red cell membranes leading to a false positive Coombs test.
There have been reports of positive test results using the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid who were subsequently found to be free of Aspergillus infection. Cross-reactions with non-Aspergillus polysaccharides and polyfuranoses with Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test have been reported. Therefore, positive test results in patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by other diagnostic methods.

 

Overdosage and Contraindications

Overdosage:
Symptoms and signs of overdose

Gastrointestinal symptoms and disturbance of the fluid and electrolyte balances may be evident. Amoxicillin crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has been observed.
Convulsions may occur in patients with impaired renal function or in those receiving high doses.
Amoxicillin has been reported to precipitate in bladder catheters, predominantly after intravenous administration of large doses. A regular check of patency should be maintained.

Treatment of intoxication

Gastrointestinal symptoms may be treated symptomatically, with attention to the water/electrolyte balance.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid can be removed from the circulation by haemodialysis.

              Contraindications
• Hypersensitivity to the active substances, to any of the penicillins or to any  of the excipients.
• History of a severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction (e.g. anaphylaxis) to another beta-lactam agent (e.g. cephalosporin, carbapenem or monobactam).
• History of jaundice/hepatic impairment due to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.

 

Clinical pharmacology.

Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Combinations of penicillins, incl. beta-lactamase inhibitors; ATC code J01CR 02.

Mode of action
Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic penicillin (beta-lactam antibiotic) that inhibits one or more enzymes (often referred to as penicillin-binding proteins, PBPs) in the biosynthetic pathway of bacterial peptidoglycan, which is an integral structural component of the bacterial cell wall. Inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis leads to weakening of the cell wall, which is usually followed by cell lysis and death.
Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamases produced by resistant bacteria and therefore the spectrum of activity of amoxicillin alone does not include organisms which produce these enzymes.
Clavulanic acid is a beta-lactam structurally related to penicillins. It inactivates some beta-lactamase enzymes thereby preventing inactivation of amoxicillin. Clavulanic acid alone does not exert a clinically useful antibacterial effect.

PK/PD relationship
The time above the minimum inhibitory concentration (T>MIC) is considered to be the major determinant of efficacy for amoxicillin.

Mechanisms of resistance
The two main mechanisms of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are:
• Inactivation by those bacterial beta-lactamases that are not themselves inhibited by clavulanic acid, including class B, C and D.
• Alteration of PBPs, which reduce the affinity of the antibacterial agent for the target.

Impermeability of bacteria or efflux pump mechanisms may cause or contribute to bacterial resistance, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria.

Breakpoints
MIC breakpoints for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are those of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)

Organism

Susceptibility Breakpoints (µg/ml)

 

Susceptible

Intermediate

Resistant

Haemophilus influenzae1

≤ 1

-

> 1

Moraxella catarrhalis1

≤ 1

-

> 1

Staphylococcus aureus2

≤ 2

-

> 2

Coagulase-negative staphylococci2

≤ 0.25

 

> 0.25

Enterococcus1

≤ 4

8

> 8

Streptococcus A, B, C, G5

≤ 0.25

-

> 0.25

Streptococcus pneumoniae3

≤ 0.5

1-2

> 2

Enterobacteriaceae1,4

-

-

> 8

Gram-negative Anaerobes1

≤ 4

8

> 8

Gram-positive Anaerobes1

≤ 4

8

> 8

Non-species related breakpoints1

≤ 2

4-8

> 8

1 The reported values are for Amoxicillin concentrations. For susceptibility testing purposes, the concentration of Clavulanic acid is fixed at 2 mg/l.
2 The reported values are Oxacillin concentrations.
3 Breakpoint values in the table are based on Ampicillin breakpoints.
4 The resistant breakpoint of R>8 mg/l ensures that all isolates with resistance mechanisms are reported resistant.
5 Breakpoint values in the table are based on Benzylpenicillin breakpoints.

The prevalence of resistance may vary geographically and with time for selected species, and local information on resistance is desirable, particularly when treating severe infections. As necessary, expert advice should be sought when the local prevalence of resistance is such that the utility of the agent in at least some types of infections is questionable.

Commonly susceptible species

Aerobic Gram-positive micro-organisms
Enterococcus faecalis
Gardnerella vaginalis
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible)£
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (methicillin-susceptible)
Streptococcus agalactiae
Streptococcus pneumoniae1
Streptococcus pyogenes and other beta-haemolytic streptococci
Streptococcus viridans group

Aerobic Gram-negative micro-organisms
Capnocytophaga spp.
Eikenella corrodens
Haemophilus influenzae2
Moraxella catarrhalis
Pasteurella multocida
Anaerobic micro-organisms
Bacteroides fragilis
Fusobacterium nucleatum
Prevotella spp.

Species for which acquired resistance may be a problem

Aerobic Gram-positive micro-organisms
Enterococcus faecium $

Aerobic Gram-negative micro-organisms
Escherichia coli
Klebsiella oxytoca
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Proteus mirabilis
Proteus vulgaris

Inherently resistant organisms

Aerobic Gram-negative micro-organisms
Acinetobacter sp.
Citrobacter freundii
Enterobacter sp.
Legionella pneumophila
Morganella morganii
Providencia spp.
Pseudomonas sp.
Serratia sp.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

Other micro-organisms
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Chlamydophila psittaci
Coxiella burnetti
Mycoplasma pneumoniae

$ Natural intermediate susceptibility in the absence of acquired mechanism of resistance.
£ All methicillin-resistant staphylococci are resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid
1 Streptococcus pneumoniae that are resistant to penicillin should not be treated with this presentation of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (see sections 4.2 and 4.4).
2 Strains with decreased susceptibility have been reported in some countries in the EU with a frequency higher than 10%.

Pharmacokinetic properties

          Absorption

Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, are fully dissociated in aqueous solution at  physiological pH. Both components are rapidly and well absorbed by the oral route of administration. Absorption of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is optimised when taken at the start of a meal. Following oral administration, amoxicillin and clavulanic acid are approximately 70% bioavailable. The plasma profiles of both components are similar and the time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) in each case is approximately one hour.
The pharmacokinetic results for a study, in which amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (500 mg/125 mg tablets three times daily) was administered in the fasting state to groups of healthy volunteers are presented below.

Mean (± SD) pharmacokinetic parameters

Active substance(s) administered

Dose

Cmax

Tmax*

AUC (0-24h)

T 1/2

(mg)

(µg/ml)

(h)

(µg.h/ml)

(h)

Amoxicillin

AMX/CA 500/125mg

500

7.19 ± 2.26

1.5 (1.0-2.5)

53.5 ± 8.87

1.15 ± 0.20

Clavulanic acid

AMX/CA 500/125mg

125

2.40 ± 0.83

1.5 (1.0-2.0)

15.72 ± 3.86

0.98 ± 0.12

AMX-amoxicillin, CA-clavulanic acid
* Median (range)

Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid serum concentrations achieved with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are similar to those produced by the oral administration of equivalent doses of amoxicillin or clavulanic acid alone.

 

Distribution

About 25% of total plasma clavulanic acid and 18% of total plasma amoxicillin is bound to protein. The apparent volume of distribution is around 0.3-0.4 l/kg for amoxicillin and around 0.2 l/kg for clavulanic acid.
Following intravenous administration, both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid have been found in gall bladder, abdominal tissue, skin, fat, muscle tissues, synovial and peritoneal fluids, bile and pus. Amoxicillin does not adequately distribute into the cerebrospinal fluid.
From animal studies there is no evidence for significant tissue retention of drug derived material for either component. Amoxicillin, like most penicillins, can be detected in breast milk. Trace quantities of clavulanic acid can also be detected in breast milk (see section 4.6).
Both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid have been shown to cross the placental barrier (see section 4.6).

Biotransformation

Amoxicillin is partly excreted in the urine as the inactive penicilloic acid in quantities equivalent to up to 10 to 25% of the initial dose. Clavulanic acid is extensively metabolized in man and eliminated in urine and faeces and as carbon dioxide in expired air.

Elimination

The major route of elimination for amoxicillin is via the kidney, whereas for clavulanic acid it is by both renal and non-renal mechanisms.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid has a mean elimination half-life of approximately one hour and a mean total clearance of approximately 25 l/h in healthy subjects. Approximately 60 to 70% of the amoxicillin and approximately 40 to 65% of the clavulanic acid are excreted unchanged in urine during the first 6h after administration of single amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid 250mg/125mg or 500 mg/125 mg tablets. Various studies have found the urinary excretion to be 50-85% for amoxicillin and between 27-60% for clavulanic acid over a 24 hour period. In the case of clavulanic acid, the largest amount of drug is excreted during the first 2 hours after administration.

Concomitant use of probenecid delays amoxicillin excretion but does not delay renal excretion of clavulanic acid (see section 4.5).

Age
The elimination half-life of amoxicillin is similar for children aged around 3 months to 2 years and older children and adults. For very young children (including preterm newborns) in the first week of life the interval of administration should not exceed twice daily administration due to immaturity of the renal pathway of elimination. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Gender
Following oral administration of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to healthy males and female subjects, gender has no significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of either amoxicillin or clavulanic acid.

Renal impairment
The total serum clearance of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid decreases proportionately with decreasing renal function. The reduction in drug clearance is more pronounced for amoxicillin than for clavulanic acid, as a higher proportion of amoxicillin is excreted via the renal route. Doses in renal impairment must therefore prevent undue accumulation of amoxicillin while maintaining adequate levels of clavulanic acid (see section 4.2).

Hepatic impairment
Hepatically impaired patients should be dosed with caution and hepatic function monitored at regular intervals.

Pharmaceutical characteristics:

General physic-chemical properties: White colored, elongated, biconvex film coated tablets.

Shelf-life: 3 years.

Storage: Store in a dry, protected from light place at a temperature not more than 30oC.
Keep it out of reach of children.

Package: 10 tablets are in a Alu Alu blister; 1 blister is in a carton box.

Conditions of supply: By prescription.

 

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CIN: U65929DL1997PTC085780